Use commas to introduce certain quoted material.
A comma must be used to introduce a quote if the quote is an independent clause.
Example: Walt Whitman demonstrates his carefree attitude when he proclaims, “I wear my hat as I please, indoors or out.”
However, a comma is not used if the quote is a dependent clause or phrase.
Example: He considers himself above societal norms, wearing his hat “indoors and out.”
Use commas to separate two or more coordinate adjectives that describe the same noun. Be sure not to add an extra comma between the final adjective and the noun itself or to use commas with non-coordinate adjectives.
Coordinate adjectives are adjectives with equal (“co”-ordinate) status in describing the noun; neither adjective is less than (subordinate to) the other. You can decide if two adjectives in a row are coordinate by asking the following questions:
If you answer yes to these questions, then the adjectives are coordinate and should be separated by a comma. Here are some examples of coordinate and non-coordinate adjectives: